Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2023
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

There have been no material changes in the Company’s significant accounting policies, other than the adoption of accounting pronouncements as described below, as compared to the significant accounting policies described in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022.

Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of expenses during the reporting period. Significant estimates and assumptions reflected in these condensed consolidated financial statements include, but are not limited to, the valuation of share-based compensation awards, the valuation of the RLNs and the derivative liabilities, which consist of embedded features in the Exchangeable Notes, and the accrual for research and development expenses. The Company bases its estimates on historical experience, known trends and other market-specific or other relevant factors that it believes to be reasonable under the circumstances. On an ongoing basis, management evaluates its estimates as there are changes in circumstances, facts and experience. Actual results could differ materially from those estimates.

Specifically, management has estimated variables used to calculate the discounted cash flow analysis (DCF) and assumptions used in the binomial option pricing model to value derivative instruments (see Note 3 – Fair Value of Financial Assets and Liabilities).

Cash and Cash Equivalents

The Company’s cash and cash equivalents consist of cash balances and highly liquid investments with maturities of three months or less at the date of purchase. Accounts held at U.S. financial institutions are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation up to $250, while accounts held at Irish financial institutions are insured under the Deposit Guarantee Scheme up to $109 (€100).

Cash accounts with any type of restriction are classified as restricted cash. If restrictions are expected to be lifted in the next twelve months, the restricted cash account is classified as current. Included within restricted cash on the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheet is $17 as of March 31, 2023 relating to the warrants issued on June 5, 2020 pursuant to the securities purchase agreement (June 3, 2020 SPA) from the June 3, 2020 registered direct offering (June 3, 2020 Offering), $6 as of March 31,

2023 relating to the warrants issued on July 2, 2020 pursuant to the securities purchase agreement (June 30, 2020 SPA) from the June 30, 2020 registered direct offering (June 30, 2020 Offering) and $11 as of March 31, 2023 relating to warrants issued in the underwritten offering in October 2020 (October 2020 Offering). These restricted cash amounts are unchanged from December 31, 2022. On the closing date of each of the registered direct offerings in June 2020 (June 3 Offering) and July 2020 (June 30 Offering) and the underwritten offering in the October 2020 Offering, each investor deposited $0.01 per warrant issued being the nominal value of the underlying ordinary share represented by each warrant. This amount will be held in trust by the Company pending a decision by the relevant investor to exercise the warrant by means of a “cashless exercise” pursuant to the terms of the warrant, in which case the $0.01 will be used to pay up the nominal value of the ordinary share issued pursuant to the warrant. Upon the exercise of the warrants other than by means of a "cashless exercise", the amount held in trust will be returned to the relevant investor in accordance with the terms of the applicable purchase agreement or prospectus.

Concentration of Credit Risk

Financial instruments that potentially expose the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments. The Company has most of its cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments at four accredited financial institutions in the United States and Ireland, in amounts that exceed federally insured limits. The Company does not believe that it is subject to unusual credit risk beyond the normal credit risk associated with commercial banking relationships.

Net Loss Per Ordinary Share

Basic and diluted net loss per ordinary share is determined by dividing net loss attributable to ordinary shareholders by the weighted-average ordinary shares outstanding during the period in accordance with Accounting Standard Codification (ASC) 260, Earnings per Share. For the periods presented, the following ordinary shares underlying the options, unvested restricted share units, warrants and the Exchangeable Notes have been excluded from the calculation because they would be anti-dilutive.



Three Months Ended




March 31, 2023



March 31, 2022


Options to purchase ordinary shares









Unvested restricted share units


















Exchangeable Notes



















Segment and Other Information

The Company determines and presents operating segments based on the information that is internally provided to the Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer and Chief Medical Officer, who together are considered the Company’s chief operating decision maker, in accordance with ASC 280, Segment Reporting. The Company has determined that it operates as a single business segment, which is the development and commercialization of innovative treatments for drug resistant bacterial infections.

The distribution of total operating expenses by geographical area was as follows:



Three Months Ended March 31,


Operating expenses











































The distribution of long-lived assets by geographical area was as follows:


Long-lived assets


March 31, 2023



December 31, 2022






























Recent Accounting Pronouncements

From time to time, new accounting pronouncements are issued by the FASB or other standard setting bodies and adopted by the Company as of the specified effective date. Unless otherwise discussed, the Company believes that the impact of recently issued standards that are not yet effective will not have a material impact on its financial position or results of operations upon adoption.

In June 2016 the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, or ASU 2016-13. The FASB subsequently issued amendments to ASU 2016-13, which have the same effective date and transition date of January 1, 2023. These standards require that credit losses be reported using an expected losses model rather than the incurred losses model that is currently used, and establishes additional disclosures related to credit risks. For available-for-sale debt securities with unrealized losses, these standards now require allowances to be recorded instead of reducing the amortized cost of the investment. These standards limit the amount of credit losses to be recognized for available-for-sale debt securities to the amount by which carrying value exceeds fair value and requires the reversal of previously recognized credit losses if fair value increases. Based on the composition of our investment portfolio, current market conditions and historical credit loss activity, the Company does not expect the adoption of these standards to have a material effect on the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheet, condensed consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive loss and related disclosures.