Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
|6 Months Ended
Jun. 30, 2021
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]
In accordance with Accounting Standards Update (ASU) 2014-15, Disclosure of Uncertainties about an Entity’s Ability to Continue as a Going Concern (Subtopic 205-40), the Company has evaluated whether there are conditions and events, considered in aggregate, that raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern within one year of the date of issue of these quarterly condensed consolidated financial statements.
The Company has funded its operations to date primarily with proceeds from the sale of preferred shares and ordinary shares, warrants, debt raised under financing arrangements with SVB including the PPP loan, payments received under the CARB-X program and the proceeds of the Private Placement and Rights Offering. The Company has incurred operating losses since inception, including net losses of $91,123 and $28,621 for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively, and a net loss of $52,006 for the year ended December 31, 2020. The Company had an accumulated deficit of $378,052 as of June 30, 2021 and expects to continue to incur net losses for the foreseeable future. Management believes that its cash and cash equivalents balance of $36,573 and short-term investments balance of $54,867 at June 30, 2021 are sufficient to fund operations for at least one year from the date the condensed consolidated financial statements are issued. In making this assessment management have considered the planned operations of the company and the ability to adjust its plans if required.
In addition, in parallel, the Company is evaluating its corporate, strategic, financial and financing alternatives, with the goal of maximizing value for its stakeholders. These alternatives could potentially include the licensing, sale or divestiture of the Company’s assets or proprietary technologies, a sale of the Company, a merger or other business combination or another strategic transaction involving the Company. The evaluation of corporate, strategic, financial and financing alternatives may not result in any particular action or any transaction being pursued, entered into or consummated, and there is no assurance as to the timing, sequence or outcome of any action or transaction or series of actions or transactions.
|COVID-19 Global Pandemic
COVID-19 Global Pandemic
The global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has caused a disruption of the normal operations of many businesses, including the temporary closure or scale-back of business operations and/or the imposition of either quarantine or remote work or meeting requirements for employees, either by government order or on a voluntary basis. The pandemic may impact the ability of the Company’s strategic partners to operate and fulfill their contractual obligations, and result in an increase in their costs and cause delays in performance. The Company may experience an impact to the timelines of any potential additional clinical and non-clinical development for sulopenem due to the worldwide spread of COVID-19. These effects, and the direct effect of the virus and any potential disruption on the Company’s operations, may negatively impact the Company’s ability to meet its strategic targets. The Company’s employees, in most cases, are working remotely due to safety concerns and using various technologies to perform their functions. Additionally, the disruption and volatility in the global and domestic capital markets may increase the cost of capital and limit the Company’s ability to access capital. Both the health and economic aspects of COVID-19 are highly fluid and the future course of each is uncertain. For these reasons and other reasons that may come to light if the coronavirus pandemic and associated protective or preventative measures expand, the Company may experience a material adverse effect on its business operations and financial condition; however, its ultimate impact is highly uncertain and subject to change.
The Company cannot foresee if and when the outbreak of COVID-19 will be effectively contained, nor can the Company predict the severity and duration of its impact. COVID-19 has not yet had a significant impact on the Company’s day to day operations but there can be no assurance that the continued spread of COVID-19 and the responsive measures taken to date will not impact patient enrolment on our ongoing Phase 1 clinical trial related to pediatric indications and the initiation of and enrolment on any additional clinical trial(s) conducted in response to the Complete Response Letter (CRL). Additionally, the COVID-19 pandemic could impact the FDA’s regulatory review process, including delays in the planned Type A meeting to identify the next steps as to the potential additional clinical and non-clinical work to support the potential resubmission of the New Drug Application (NDA) for approval of oral sulopenem following receipt of the CRL, other meetings related to planned or completed clinical trials, and ultimately the review and approval of our product candidates.
Management is actively monitoring the global situation and its possible effects on its financial condition, liquidity, suppliers, industry, and operations including manufacturing, clinical trials and workforce. Given the daily evolution of the COVID-19 outbreak and the global responses to curb its spread, the Company is not able to estimate the adverse effects of the COVID-19 outbreak on its results of operations, financial condition, or liquidity.
|Interim Financial Information
Interim Financial Information
The condensed consolidated balance sheet at December 31, 2020 was derived from audited financial statements, but does not include all disclosures required by GAAP. The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements as of June 30, 2021 and for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020 have been prepared by the Company pursuant to the rules and regulations of the SEC for interim financial statements. Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations. These condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the Company’s audited consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto for the year ended December 31, 2020, included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on March 12, 2021. In the opinion of management, all adjustments, consisting only of normal recurring adjustments necessary for a fair statement of the Company’s financial position as of June 30, 2021, and results of operations for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, and cash flows for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020 have been made. The results of operations for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020 are not necessarily indicative of the results of operations that may be expected for the year ending December 31, 2021.
|Use of Estimates
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of expenses during the reporting period. Significant estimates and assumptions reflected in these condensed consolidated financial statements include, but are not limited to, the accrual for research and development expenses, the valuation of share-based compensation awards, and the valuation of the RLNs and the Derivative liabilities. The Company bases its estimates on historical experience, known trends and other market-specific or other relevant factors that it believes to be reasonable under the circumstances. On an ongoing basis, management evaluates its estimates as there are changes in circumstances, facts and experience. Actual results could differ materially from those estimates. The Company has contemplated the impact of COVID-19 within its financial statements and is not aware of any specific event or circumstance that would require the Company to update estimates, judgments or revise the carrying value of any assets or liabilities.
Specifically, management has estimated variables used to calculate the discounted cash flow analysis (DCF) and assumptions used in the Black-Scholes and binomial option pricing models to value derivative instruments (see Note 3 - Fair Value of Financial Assets and Liabilities).
|Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company’s cash and cash equivalents consist of cash balances and highly liquid investments with maturities of three months or less at the date of purchase. Accounts held at U.S. financial institutions are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation up to $250, while accounts held at Irish financial institutions are insured under the Deposit Guarantee Scheme up to $119 (€100).
Cash accounts with any type of restriction are classified as restricted cash. If restrictions are expected to be lifted in the next twelve months, the restricted cash account is classified as current. Included within restricted cash on the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheet is a certificate of deposit for $60 which is being held by a third party bank as collateral for the irrevocable letter of credit issued in March 2018 to secure an office lease (see Note 7 - Leases). Also included within restricted cash on the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheet is $17 relating to the warrants issued on June 5, 2020 pursuant to the June 3 SPA, $6 relating to the warrants issued on July 2, 2020 pursuant to the June 30 SPA and $11 relating to warrants issued in the October Offering. On the closing date of each of the June 3 Offering, June 30 Offering and October Offering, each investor deposited $0.01 per warrant issued being the nominal value of the underlying ordinary share represented by each warrant. This amount will be held in trust by the Company pending a decision by the relevant investor to exercise the warrant by means of a "cashless exercise" pursuant to the terms of the warrant, in which case the $0.01 will be used to pay up the nominal value of the ordinary share issued pursuant to the warrant. Upon the exercise of the warrants other than by means of a "cashless exercise", the amount held in trust will be returned to the relevant investor in accordance with the terms of the applicable purchase agreement or prospectus.
|Concentration of Credit Risk
Concentration of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially expose the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments. The Company has most of its cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments at two accredited financial institutions in the United States and Ireland, in amounts that exceed federally insured limits. The Company does not believe that it is subject to unusual credit risk beyond the normal credit risk associated with commercial banking relationships.
|Net Loss Per Ordinary Share
Net Loss Per Ordinary Share
Basic and diluted net loss per ordinary share is determined by dividing net loss attributable to ordinary shareholders by the weighted-average ordinary shares outstanding during the period in accordance with Accounting Standard Codification (ASC) 260, Earnings per Share. For the periods presented, the following ordinary shares underlying the options, unvested restricted share units, unvested performance restricted share units, warrants and the Exchangeable Notes have been excluded from the calculation because they would be anti-dilutive.
|Segment and Other Information
Segment and Other Information
The Company determines and presents operating segments based on the information that is internally provided to the Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, who together are considered the Company’s chief operating decision maker, in accordance with ASC 280, Segment Reporting. The Company has determined that it operates as a business segment, which is the development and commercialization of innovative treatments for drug resistant bacterial infections.
The distribution of total operating expenses by geographical area was as follows:
The distribution of long-lived assets by geographical area was as follows:
On recognition, the RLNs qualified as debt instruments under ASC 470, Debt, and were initially recorded at fair value, applying a DCF model, and then subsequently measured at amortized cost. In January 2021, the RLNs were exchange listed, and therefore, derivative accounting has been applied in accordance with ASC 815, Derivatives and Hedging, which establishes accounting and reporting standards for derivative instruments, including certain derivative instruments embedded in other financial instruments or contracts which require bifurcation and measurement at fair value for accounting purposes on the balance sheet date. Any liabilities recorded at fair value are revalued at each reporting period with the resulting change in fair value reflected in other income / (expense), net.
The CARES Act lifts certain deduction limitations originally imposed by the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (2017 Tax Act). Corporate taxpayers may carryback net operating losses (NOLs) originating during 2018 through 2020 for up to five years, which was not previously allowed under the 2017 Tax Act. The CARES Act also eliminates the 80% of taxable income limitations by allowing corporate entities to fully utilize NOL carryforwards to offset taxable income in 2018, 2019 or 2020. Taxpayers may generally deduct interest up to the sum of 50% of adjusted taxable income plus business interest income (30% limit under the 2017 Tax Act) for tax years beginning January 1, 2019 and 2020. The CARES Act allows taxpayers with alternative minimum tax credits to claim a refund in 2020 for the entire amount of the credits instead of recovering the credits through refunds over a period of years, as originally enacted by the 2017 Tax Act. The enactment of the CARES Act did not result in any material adjustments to the Company’s income tax provision for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, or to the Company’s net deferred tax assets as of June 30, 2021.
|Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes. The new guidance is intended to simplify the accounting for income taxes by removing certain exceptions and by updating accounting requirements around franchise taxes, goodwill recognized for tax purposes, the allocation of current and deferred tax expense among legal entities, among other minor changes. ASU 2019-12 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020, including interim periods within those fiscal years. The new standard became effective for the Company on January 1, 2021 and adoption did not have a material impact on the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements.
In January 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-01, Investments-Equity Securities (Topic 321), Investments-Equity Method and Joint Ventures (Topic 323), and Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): Clarifying the Interactions between Topic 321, Topic 323, and Topic 815. The amendments in ASU 2020-01 clarify the interaction of the accounting for equity securities under Topic 321 and investments accounted for under the equity method of accounting. ASU 2020-01 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020, including interim periods within those fiscal years. The new standard became effective for the Company on January 1, 2021 and adoption did not have a material impact on the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements.
In October 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-10, Codification Improvements, which clarifies various topics in the Codification by providing consistency in codification wording and moving existing disclosure requirements to the relevant disclosure sections. ASU 2020-10 is effective for annual and interim periods in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020. This standard became effective for the Company on January 1, 2021, and did not have a material impact on the Company’s disclosures.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-06, Debt—Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging—Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40): Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity, which reduces the number of accounting models for convertible instruments and allows more contracts to qualify for equity classification. The ASU is effective for annual and interim periods in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021. Early adoption is permitted, but no earlier than annual and interim periods in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020. The Company is assessing what impact ASU 2020-06 will have on the condensed consolidated financial statements.
In May 2021, the FASB issued ASU 2021-04, Earnings Per Share (Topic 260), Debt—Modifications and Extinguishments (Subtopic 470-50), Compensation—Stock Compensation (Topic 718), and Derivatives and Hedging—Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40): Issuer’s Accounting for Certain Modifications or Exchanges of Freestanding Equity-Classified Written Call Options, which clarifies an issuer’s accounting for modifications or exchanges of freestanding written call options that remain equity-classified after modification. The ASU 2021-04 is effective for all entities for interim and annual periods in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in an interim period, as of the beginning of that fiscal year. The Company is assessing what impact ASU 2021-04 will have on the condensed consolidated financial statements.