Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
|9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2023
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]
|Description of Business
Description of Business
Iterum Therapeutics plc (the Company) was incorporated under the laws of the Republic of Ireland in June 2015 as a limited company and re-registered as a public limited company on March 20, 2018. The Company maintains its registered office at Fitzwilliam Court, 1st Floor, Leeson Close, Dublin 2, Ireland. The Company commenced operations in November 2015. The Company licensed global rights to its novel anti-infective compound, sulopenem, from Pfizer Inc. (Pfizer). The Company is a clinical-stage pharmaceutical company dedicated to developing and commercializing sulopenem to be potentially the first oral penem available in the United States and the first and only oral and intravenous (IV) branded penem available globally.
|Liquidity and Going Concern
Liquidity and Going Concern
Since inception, the Company has devoted substantially all of its efforts to research and development, recruiting management and technical staff, and raising capital, and has financed its operations through the issuance of ordinary and convertible preferred shares, debt raised under a financing arrangement with Silicon Valley Bank (SVB) including the Paycheck Protection Program loan (PPP loan), a sub-award from the Trustees of Boston University under the Combating Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Biopharmaceutical Accelerator (CARB-X) program and the proceeds of a private placement (Private Placement) and subsequent rights offering (Rights Offering) pursuant to which its wholly owned subsidiary, Iterum Therapeutics Bermuda Limited (Iterum Bermuda) issued and sold approximately $51.8 million aggregate principal amount of 6.500% Exchangeable Senior Subordinated Notes due 2025 (Exchangeable Notes) and $0.1 million aggregate principal amount of Limited Recourse Royalty-Linked Subordinated Notes (the RLNs and, together with the Exchangeable Notes, the Securities). The Company has not generated any product revenue. The Company is subject to risks and uncertainties common to early-stage companies in the pharmaceutical industry, including, but not limited to, the ability to secure additional capital to fund operations, failure to achieve regulatory approval, failure to successfully develop and commercialize its product candidates, development by competitors of new technological innovations, dependence on key personnel, protection of proprietary technology and compliance with government regulations. Product candidates currently under development will require additional research and development efforts, including regulatory approval prior to commercialization.
Even if the Company’s product development efforts are successful, it is uncertain when, if ever, the Company will realize significant revenue from product sales.
The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (GAAP) and include the accounts of the Company and its subsidiaries.
The Company's shareholders approved a reverse share split of the Company's ordinary shares on June 15, 2022, which became effective on August 17, 2022, (the Reverse Share Split). As of 5:00 p.m. Eastern Standard Time on August 17, 2022, every fifteen ordinary shares of $0.01 each (nominal value) in the authorized and unissued and authorized and issued share capital of the Company were consolidated into one ordinary share of $0.15 each (nominal value), and the nominal value of each ordinary share was subsequently reduced from $0.15 to $0.01 nominal value per share. No fractional shares were issued to any shareholders in connection with the Reverse Share Split. Shareholders who were otherwise entitled to receive a fractional ordinary share instead received a cash payment in an amount equal to the net cash proceeds attributable to the sale of such fractional entitlement following aggregation and sale by the Company on behalf of each of the relevant shareholders of the Company's ordinary shares, on the basis of prevailing market prices at such time. As the par value per share of the Company's shares remained at $0.01 per share following the Reverse Share Split, the difference between the total share capital at (par value) prior to the Reverse Share Split and the total share capital (par value) after the Reverse Share Split, has been reclassified as additional paid-in-capital on a retroactive basis. The number of ordinary shares reserved for issuance upon exercise of the Exchangeable Notes, outstanding share options and warrants or upon the vesting of outstanding restricted share units, was adjusted and proportionately decreased and the exercise price of all share options, Exchangeable Notes and warrants was proportionately increased. Additionally, the number of shares that may be the subject of future grants under our share plans was proportionally decreased. Accordingly, all historical share and per share information related to the issued and outstanding ordinary shares, the Exchangeable Notes, share options, restricted share units, warrants and shares reserved for future issuance under the Company's share plans have been adjusted to reflect the Reverse Share Split for all prior periods presented.
The Company filed a universal shelf registration statement on Form S-3 with the SEC, which was declared effective on October 17, 2022 (File No. 333-267795), and pursuant to which the Company registered for sale up to $100.0 million of any combination of debt securities, ordinary shares, preferred shares, subscription rights, purchase contracts, units and/or warrants from time to time and at prices and on terms that the Company may determine. On October 7, 2022, the Company entered into a sales agreement with H.C. Wainwright & Co., LLC (HC Wainwright), as agent, pursuant to which the Company may offer and sell ordinary shares, nominal value $0.01 per share, for aggregate gross sales proceeds of up to $16.0 million (subject to the availability of ordinary shares), from time to time through HC Wainwright by any method permitted that is deemed to be an "at the market offering" as defined in Rule 415 (a)(4) promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.
In accordance with Accounting Standards Update (ASU) 2014-15, Disclosure of Uncertainties about an Entity’s Ability to Continue as a Going Concern (Subtopic 205-40), the Company has evaluated whether there are conditions and events, considered in
aggregate, that raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern within one year of the date of issue of these quarterly condensed consolidated financial statements.
The Company has funded its operations to date primarily with proceeds from the sale of preferred shares and ordinary shares, warrants, debt raised under its financing arrangement with SVB including the PPP loan (both of which have been repaid), payments received under the CARB-X program and proceeds of the Private Placement and Rights Offering. The Company has incurred operating losses since inception, including net losses of $26,009 and $39,344 for the nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively, and a net loss of $44,434 for the year ended December 31, 2022. The Company had an accumulated deficit of $448,936 as of September 30, 2023 and expects to continue to incur net losses for the foreseeable future. The Company’s future cash flows are dependent on key variables such as its ability to secure additional sources of funding in the form of public or private financing of debt or equity or collaboration agreements. Based on its available cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments, the Company does not have cash on hand to fund its current operations and capital expenditure requirements for the next 12 months from the date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. This condition raises substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern for one year from the date these condensed consolidated financial statements are issued.
The Company plans to address this condition by raising funding through the possible sale of the Company’s equity or debt through public or private equity financings, which may include sales of the Company’s ordinary shares under the Company’s sales agreement with H.C. Wainwright. Although management intends to pursue plans to obtain additional funding to finance its operations, there is no assurance that the Company will be successful in obtaining sufficient funding on terms acceptable to the Company to fund continuing operations, if at all. The terms of any financing may adversely affect the holdings or the rights of the Company's shareholders. In addition, in parallel, the Company is evaluating its corporate, strategic, financial and financing alternatives, with the goal of maximizing value for its stakeholders. These alternatives could potentially include the licensing, sale or divestiture of the Company’s assets or proprietary technologies, a sale of the Company, a merger or other business combination or another strategic transaction involving the Company. The evaluation of corporate, strategic, financial and financing alternatives may not result in any particular action or any transaction being pursued, entered into or consummated, and there is no assurance as to the timing, sequence or outcome of any action or transaction or series of actions or transactions.
If the Company is unable to obtain funding, it could be forced to delay, reduce or eliminate some or all of its research and development programs or commercialization efforts, which could adversely affect its business prospects, or the Company may be unable to continue operations. Although management continues to pursue these plans, and the Company has successfully raised capital in the past, there is no assurance that the Company will be successful in obtaining sufficient funding on terms acceptable to the Company to fund continuing operations, if at all. Based on the Company’s operating losses since inception, the expectation of continued operating losses for the foreseeable future, and the need to raise additional capital to finance its future operations, management has concluded there is substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern within one year from the date these condensed consolidated financial statements are issued.
The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty. Accordingly, the condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared on a basis that assumes the Company will continue as a going concern and which contemplates the realization of assets and satisfaction of liabilities and commitments in the ordinary course of business.
|Interim Financial Information
Interim Financial Information
The condensed consolidated balance sheet at December 31, 2022 was derived from audited financial statements, but does not include all disclosures required by GAAP. The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements as of September 30, 2023 and for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022 have been prepared by the Company pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) for interim financial statements. Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations. These condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the Company’s audited consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto for the year ended December 31, 2022, included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on March 16, 2023. In the opinion of management, all adjustments, consisting only of normal recurring adjustments necessary for a fair statement of the Company’s financial position as of September 30, 2023, and results of operations for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, and cash flows for the nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022 have been made. The results of operations for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023 are not necessarily indicative of the results of operations that may be expected for the year ending December 31, 2023.
|Use of Estimates
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, the reported amounts of expenses during the reporting period and the assessment of the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern. Significant estimates and assumptions reflected in these condensed consolidated financial statements include, but are not limited to, the valuation of share-based compensation awards, the valuation of the RLNs and the derivative liabilities, which consist of embedded features in the Exchangeable Notes, and the accrual for research and development expenses. The Company bases its estimates on historical experience, known trends and other market-specific or other relevant factors that it believes to be reasonable under the circumstances. On an ongoing basis, management evaluates its estimates as there are changes in circumstances, facts and experience. Actual results could differ materially from those estimates.
Specifically, management has estimated variables used to calculate the discounted cash flow analysis (DCF) and assumptions used in the binomial option pricing model to value derivative instruments (see Note 3 – Fair Value of Financial Assets and Liabilities).
|Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company’s cash and cash equivalents consist of cash balances and highly liquid investments with maturities of three months or less at the date of purchase. Accounts held at U.S. financial institutions are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation up to $250, while accounts held at Irish financial institutions are insured under the Deposit Guarantee Scheme up to $106 (€100).
Cash accounts with any type of restriction are classified as restricted cash. If restrictions are expected to be lifted in the next twelve months, the restricted cash account is classified as current. Included within restricted cash on the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheet is $17 as of September 30, 2023 relating to the warrants issued on June 5, 2020 pursuant to the securities purchase agreement (June 3, 2020 SPA) from the June 3, 2020 registered direct offering (June 3, 2020 Offering), $6 as of September 30, 2023 relating to the warrants issued on July 2, 2020 pursuant to the securities purchase agreement (June 30, 2020 SPA) from the June 30, 2020 registered direct offering (June 30, 2020 Offering) and $11 as of September 30, 2023 relating to warrants issued in the underwritten offering in October 2020 (October 2020 Offering). These restricted cash amounts are unchanged from December 31, 2022. On the closing date of each of the registered direct offerings in June 2020 (June 3 Offering) and July 2020 (June 30 Offering) and the underwritten offering in the October 2020 Offering, each investor deposited $0.01 per warrant issued being the nominal value of the underlying ordinary share represented by each warrant. This amount will be held in trust by the Company pending a decision by the relevant investor to exercise the warrant by means of a “cashless exercise” pursuant to the terms of the warrant, in which case the $0.01 will be used to pay up the nominal value of the ordinary share issued pursuant to the warrant. Upon the exercise of the warrants other than by means of a "cashless exercise", the amount held in trust will be returned to the relevant investor in accordance with the terms of the applicable purchase agreement or prospectus.
|Concentration of Credit Risk
Concentration of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially expose the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments. The Company has most of its cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments at three accredited financial institutions in the United States and Ireland, in amounts that exceed federally insured limits. The Company does not believe that it is subject to unusual credit risk beyond the normal credit risk associated with commercial banking relationships.
|Net Loss Per Ordinary Share
Net Loss Per Ordinary Share
Basic and diluted net loss per ordinary share is determined by dividing net loss attributable to ordinary shareholders by the weighted-average ordinary shares outstanding during the period in accordance with Accounting Standard Codification (ASC) 260, Earnings per Share. For the periods presented, the following ordinary shares underlying the options, unvested restricted share units, warrants and the Exchangeable Notes have been excluded from the calculation because they would be anti-dilutive.
|Segment and Other Information
Segment and Other Information
The Company determines and presents operating segments based on the information that is internally provided to the Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer and Chief Medical Officer, who together are considered the Company’s chief operating
decision maker, in accordance with ASC 280, Segment Reporting. The Company has determined that it operates as a business segment, which is the development and commercialization of innovative treatments for drug resistant bacterial infections.
The distribution of total operating expenses by geographical area was as follows:
The distribution of long-lived assets by geographical area was as follows:
|Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
From time to time, new accounting pronouncements are issued by the FASB or other standard setting bodies and adopted by the Company as of the specified effective date. Unless otherwise discussed, the Company believes that the impact of recently issued standards that are not yet effective will not have a material impact on its financial position or results of operations upon adoption.
In June 2016 the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, or ASU 2016-13. The FASB subsequently issued amendments to ASU 2016-13, which have the same effective date and transition date of January 1, 2023. These standards require that credit losses be reported using an expected losses model rather than the incurred losses model that is currently used, and establishes additional disclosures related to credit risks. For available-for-sale debt securities with unrealized losses, these standards now require allowances to be recorded instead of reducing the amortized cost of the investment. These standards limit the amount of credit losses to be recognized for available-for-sale debt securities to the amount by which carrying value exceeds fair value and requires the reversal of previously recognized credit losses if fair value increases. Based on the composition of our investment portfolio, current market conditions and historical credit loss activity, the Company does not expect the adoption of these standards to have a material effect on the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheet, condensed consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive loss and related disclosures.